Population: 4.3 million (July 2018 est.).
Religions: Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.).
Ethnic groups: Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.).
Language: Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.).
Nationality: Croat(s), Croatian(s).
Country name: Republic of Croatia (local: Republika Hrvatska).
Government type: parliamentary republic.
Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia). Constitution adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2001.
Administrative divisions: 20 counties and 1 city.
Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands.
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes.
Total area: 56,542 km˛.
Coastline: 5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km).
Highest point: Dinara 1,830 m.
Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast.
Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar.
Croatia controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits.
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia.
Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.