Population: 69,865 (July 2004 est.).
Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant).
Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998).
Language: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese.
Many immigrants are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry.
Country name: Principality of Andorra (local: Principat d'Andorra).
Capital: Andorra la Vella.
Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives. Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993.
Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria.
Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys.
Total area: 468 km˛.
Highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m (lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m).
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers.
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
GDP (purchasing power parity): US$ 1.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP per capita (purchasing power parity): US$ 19,000 (2000 est.)
Vall del Madriu em Andorra.