The lake basin, a landform in which a block of the Earth’s crust dropped down between blocks that rise on either side, began to form nearly 25 million years ago as part of the Great Rift Valley (NASA, 1985).
Horn of Africa, in Somalia. This photo, from NASA, shows the arid-to-semiarid landscape in the east of Somalia. The shape of this part of Africa seems like a horn of rhinoceros penetrating the Indian Ocean. In southern and northwestern Somalia there is a relatively dense thorn bush savanna. Northern region have mainly grassy plains. Northeastern Somalia and parts of the northern coastal plain there is a scarce vegetation.
Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, Dem. Republic of Congo and Zambia (image below). This east-looking photograph features Lake Tanganyika, the second deepest freshwater lake in the world with a maximum depth of 1436 m and the longest lake in the world, stretching 660 km north to south. Its width varies between 16 and 72 km. The lake, bordered on either side by steep slopes, fills a long narrow trough in the western arm of Africa’s Great Rift Valley and supports a thriving fishing industry.
Egypt, Africa and Mediterranean Sea (NASA).
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